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False accusation

Qadhf is an Arabic root that originally means ‘throwing stones or similar objects’, and then came to be used to mean accusing others of committing immoral offences such as adultery and fornication, as such accusations also cause harm to the accused. In Islamic terminology it refers to false accusation of adultery or sodomy. 

How Islam Views Adultery

Adultery is one of the gravest and most wicked sins as it leaves very serious effects on both individuals and society. It causes the absence of clarity of lineage, which leads to people’s rights of inheritance being mixed up, and families split and collapse as a result, with grave consequences for children and their upbringing. When adultery leads to pregnancy, the child is often brought up by someone who is not its real father. Social ties are considerably weakened by the spread of adultery, and therefore Islam warns very sternly against all sexual relations outside the marriage bond and prescribes severe punishments for it.

The concept of hadd in islamic law

The hudud, i.e. mandatory punishments, aim to deter people from committing acts of disobedience of Allah and encroaching on what He has forbidden. Thus, they help to spread security and reassurance in the community. In addition, they serve to absolve the guilty of their guilt.

Islamic Punishments (Hudud)

The Arabic term hadd (plural: hudud) is defined as a punishment stated in Islamic law for encroaching on the limits set by Allah. It is also defined as a punishment stated in Islamic law, as a deterrent from committing a similar offence. The legitimacy of these punishments is based on the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the unanimity of scholars. Specific punishments are stated in the Qur’an and the Sunnah as applicable to certain crimes, such as adultery and theft.


1-The sacrifice for pilgrimage in the tamattu' or the qiran methods may be offered any time between the Eid prayer on Eid day (i.e. an hour after sunrise) until the end of the Tashriq days which is the 13th.  2-The sacrifice for having to break the ihram restrictions, such as having to shave one’s head or wear ordinary clothes, has no specific time: its time is when this is done. The same applies to the sacrifice for omitting a duty. However, it should be as soon as possible without delay. 3-The sacrifice for being prevented from continuing with the pilgrimage: its time is when this takes place. What is required is to sacrifice a sheep. Seven people may share a sacrifice of one camel or a cow.

Types of sacrifice

1-Offering a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep is obligatory for people offering the pilgrimage in the  tamattu'  or  qiran  methods. 2-Sacrifice in compensation 3-Voluntary sacrifice 4-Pledged sacrifice

On the way back

Whenever the Prophet came home from any expedition or pilgrimage or 'umrah, when he came to a narrow passage he used to declare that there is no deity than Allah and he has no partners. Read the full sentence below.

If the stoning is delayed

If the stoning is delayed, the pilgrim should go for the 3 jamrahs to stone in order for 3 successive days in order to finish his pilgrimage duties and proceed to do Farwell Tawaf if he is not a Makkah resident. A pilgrim who has delayed the stoning until the last day starts doing this duty as for the first day, i.e. 11 Dhul-Hijjah, and performs the stoning at the three Jamrahs in the right order, as explained earlier.

The pilgrimage days

Pilgrims staying in Makkah or resident in Makkah are recommended to take a bath, wear perfume, and then enter into the state of consecration for the pilgrimage during mid-morning. Pilgrimage starts by the pilgrim taking a bath, declaring his intention to do pilgrimage, entering in a state of consecration and starting his journey to Mina by midday. This article explains all steps in details. 1. 8 Dhul-Hijjah, which is called Yawm al-Tarwiyah 2. 9 Dhul-Hijjah It is a Sunnah for pilgrims to offer the Fajr prayer at Mina and then devote themselves to the glorification of Allah and supplication. 3. 10 Dhul-Hijjah, the grand day of pilgrimage, which is the Eid day Pilgrims calmly proceed from Muzdalifah to Mina before sunrise, repeating the phrases of  talbiyah  as they move along. 4. 11 Dhul-Hijjah The following applies to all three days called the Tashriq days, i.e. 11, 12 and 13 Dhul-Hijjah.5. 12 Dhul-Hijjah On this day the pilgrim proceeds to do exactly what he did the previous day, stoning at the three Jamrahs.6. 13 Dhul-Hijjah On this day, pilgrims do the stoning at the three Jamrahs, as they did the previous two days. The time for stoning ends at sunset on this day.

How to conduct the pilgrimage

The pilgrimage starts on 8 Dhul-Hijjah and ends at sunset on 13 Dhul-Hijjah.  Before this, the pilgrim does the following: 1-A pilgrim choosing the  tamattu'   method starts his  i h r a m , i.e. consecration, at the point of  m i q a t  and declares:  labbayka Allahumma ' umrah , (which means: I am responding to you, my Lord, intending to perform the ' umrah ). 2-A pilgrim choosing the qiran method starts his ihram at the point of miqat and declares: labbayka Allahumma hajjan wa 'umrah, (which means: I am responding to you, my Lord, intending to perform the pilgrimage and the 'umrah). 3-A pilgrim choosing the ifrad method starts his ihram at the point of miqat and declares: labbayka Allahumma hajjan, (which means: I am responding to you, my Lord, intending to perform the pilgrimage).

Practices prohibited during consecration (i.e. ihram)

 1- Men may not wear anything that is tailored to take the shape of the body or any part of it, whether it is a robe or trousers or anything similar. They wear two pieces of cloth, one is wrapped around the body, covering them from the waist to well below the knees, and the other thrown over their shoulders and covering the top part of the body. If one cannot find a garment to wrap himself with, i.e. izar, he may wear trousers. Women may wear whatever they wish except veils and gloves. They have to leave their faces and hands uncovered.  2- Wearing perfume after entering the state of Ihram, on body or clothes, and deliberately taking a smell of perfume. He may, however, smell plants and use kohl that has no smell.  3- Removing hair and clipping nails. This applies to both men and women. One may wash one’s head gently. If one’s nail is broken, one may get rid of it.  4- A man may not use a head cover, but he may be in the shade of something like a tree, a tent, etc., or he may use an umbrella when needed. Women may not cover their faces with something like a veil, whether showing their eyes or not.  If a person wears perfume, covers his head, or wears something tailored out of ignorance, forgetfulness, or because he is forced to do so, his mistake is overlooked. However, when the reason is removed, as when the person concerned learns of the prohibition or remembers or the compulsion is ended, he should stop this immediately. 5- Proposing or marrying for oneself or someone else. 6- Sexual intercourse with one’s wife. This renders the pilgrimage invalid if done before the initial release from consecration, even after the attendance at Arafat is over. 7- Sexual foreplay including kissing, touching and gazing with desire, but this does not invalidate the pilgrimage. 8- Hunting and killing game. He may kill the types of harmful animals that the Prophet (peace be upon him) allowed to kill in the Haram and elsewhere. These are ravens, rats, scorpions, kites, snakes and vicious dogs. He may not help in hunting or killing game, not even by pointing  at game. If someone hunts an animal while not in the state of Ihram and was not assisted by someone in Ihram, it is permissible to eat from it. Otherwise, this is prohibited. 9- No one, whether in consecration or not, may cut the trees of the Haram area, or its green plants that are not harmful. Branches that stretch into people’s way and cause inconvenience may be cut. Excepted is a type of shrub tree called al-idhkhar, and what people themselves grow.

Recommended practices

1-Taking a bath, wearing perfume (for men only) and putting on two white ihram garments. 2-Clipping one’s nails, removing pubic and armpit hair and trimming one’s moustache. 3-Performing the tawaf of arrival for those doing the pilgrimage in the ifrad or qiran methods. 4-Jogging in the first three rounds of the tawaf of arrival. 5-Baring one’s right shoulder when doing the tawaf of arrival. 6-Staying at Mina the night that proceeds the day of Arafat. 7- Repeating the phrases of talbiyah from the time of entering into the state of consecration (Ihram) until one has done the stoning at the Grand Jamrah, on the Day of Eid, i.e. 10th of the month. 8-Offering the Maghrib and 'Isha’ prayers together at Muzdalifah.9-Stopping close to al-Mash'ar al-Haram at Muzdalifah from Fajr until sunrise, shortly before sunrise, if possible. If not, at any place at Muzdalifah.


1- Entering into the state of consecration, i.e. ihram, at the designated point (Meeqat) on one’s route. 2- Staying at Arafat until sunset The Prophet (peace be upon him) permitted women, children and the weak to leave Muzdalifah after midnight. 3- Staying at Muzdalifah until the break of dawn, after proceeding from Arafat. 4- Spending the next two or three nights at Mina. 5- Stoning the Jamrahs in the right order. 6- Shaving one’s head for men,  or cutting one’s hair. 7- The tawaf of farewell at the end, except for women who are in the period or having postnatal bleeding.


The pilgrimage includes four essential requirements, i.e. rukns:1. I h r a m , i.e. consecration, is a state where an individual commits himself to be in before setting off to perform either the major or minor (umrah).2. Attendance at Arafat on 9 Dhul-Hijjah.3. The  t aw a f  after Arafat.4. Walking between the two hills of al-Safa and al-Marwah.

The Pilgrimage (i.e. hajj)

The Arabic word hajj, i.e. the pilgrimage, originally means ‘to go for a definite aim’. In Islamic contexts it means ‘an act of worship through the fulfilment of certain rites in particular places during a specified period of time, in accordance with Allah’s messenger’s practice.   Importance: The pilgrimage is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built.