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Partnership (Sharikah) means joining two properties together so that they cannot be separated. In Islamic contexts it means ‘having joint rights or actions’.This includes the rights to inheritance, will, or a gift that gives shares of benefit or ownership. This is also called ‘partnership in ownership’.Allah says: ‘Thus do many partners wrong one another, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds’ (38: 24) and ‘If there be more, then they shall share in one-third’ (4: 12).


A loan is money given by one person to another to be returned later in the same amount, so as to benefit the recipient only. It is legitimate, as is clearly stated in numerous Qur’anic verses and Hadith.

Types of Usury

One: Riba al-Fa l (i.e. an increase in quantity). This means that the two items exchanged in a particular deal are of the same type but the quantity of one of them is more than the other. Two: Riba al-Nas’ah (i.e. increase for a delay). This refers to an additional quantity of one of the exchanged items in return for delayed payment, or in return for delayed possession in the sale of two kinds that share the reason applicable to Riba al-Fadhl when one of them is not money.


Definition and Ruling: The Arabic term riba, which means ‘usury’, originally means ‘increase’. In Islamic usage it means ‘an increase in one of the two exchanged items without a compensation to offset this increase. Allah says: ‘Allah has made trade lawful and usury forbidden’ (2: 275).

Commercial Transactions

Essentials: A sale has three essentials: parties, subject of sale, and a formula.Witnesses: To have witnesses to a sale is recommended, but not obligatory.  Allah says: ‘Have witnesses when you make business deals’ (2: 282).

Dhimmah and jizyah

Linguistically speaking, the Arabic term dhimmah means pledge, security or warranty. The dhimmah pledge means, in Islamic terminology, leaving some unbelievers alone and protecting them in return for their payment of jizyah and abiding by the Islamic rules that apply to them.

Truce agreements

A truce refers to an agreement made by the Muslim ruler or his deputy with the enemy to cease fighting for a specified period, whether short or long, as may be needed. This is perfectly permissible if it is of benefit to the Muslim community, as in the case when the Muslim community is in a state of weakness or unpreparedness to fight, or for some other valid reason such as the hope to be able to advocate Islam among unbelievers, etc.

War gains

The majority of scholars agree that war gains are divided into five shares. The first share belongs to the Muslim treasury, and it is taken by the Muslim ruler or anyone he has assigned for the purpose.

Captives of War

When Muslims take enemy officers and soldiers as prisoners of war, they must treat these captives well. In the Battle of Badr, the first major battle in the history of Islam, the Muslims took a large number of unbelievers as prisoners. The Prophet  (peace be upon him) gave orders that these captives should be treated well. His Companions gave them preference over their own families in food and drink, showing them every kindness.

Types of sacrifice

Offering a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep is obligatory for people offering the pilgrimage in the tamattu' or qiran methods. This is a sacrifice offered in gratitude to Allah for enabling the pilgrim to offer both the pilgrimage and the 'umrah in the same season.

The Sacrifice

Al-hady is an Arabic term that refers to the sacrifice offered as part of the pilgrimage. The sacrifice comprises animals: camels, cows and sheep that are slaughtered to earn Allah’s reward. 

On the way back

‘When the Prophet (peace be upon him) started his journey home after an expedition, or after the pilgrimage or 'umrah, whenever he came to a narrow passage or an open space, or a plateau, he would say Allah-u akbar three times then add: La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la shariqa lah. Lahul-mulk wa lahul-hamd, wa huwa [ala kulli shay’in qadir. Ayibun, ta'ibun, [abidun, sajidun, lirabbina hamidun. Sadaq Allah wa'dah, wa nasar 'abdah, wa hazam al-Ahzaba wahdah’.

If the stoning is delayed

A pilgrim who has delayed the stoning until the last day starts doing this duty as for the first day, i.e. 11 Dhul-Hijjah, and performs the stoning at the three Jamrahs in the right order, as explained earlier. After stoning at the Grand Jamrah, he goes back to the first Jamrah to do the stoning for the second day, 12 Dhul-Hijjah, at the three Jamrahs in the same order. He repeats the whole process again for the last day, 13 Dhul-Hijjah. When he has done this, his pilgrimage duties are completed and he should leave Mina. It should be noted that if stoning is not done before sunset of the 13th, it cannot be done afterwards.

The pilgrimage days

Pilgrimage starts by the pilgrim taking a bath, declaring his intention to do pilgrimage, entering in a state of consecration and starting his journey to Mina by midday. This article explains all steps in details. 

The consecration

Pilgrims start their consecration from the place where they happen to be in Makkah or Mina or any other place. They declare: Labbayka Allahumma hajjan (i.e. I respond to You, my Lord, intending to do the pilgrimage). The pilgrims who chose the qiran or ifrad methods are already in consecration. 

Yawm al-Tarwiyah

Pilgrims staying in Makkah or resident in Makkah are recommended to take a bath, wear perfume, and then enter into the state of consecration for the pilgrimage during mid-morning.