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Dry ablution

Dry ablution is a legitimate concession granted by Allah says in the Qur’an to His servants. It is one of the distinctive aspects of Islamic law and it is peculiar to the Muslim community.


The Arabic word tayammum, which is translated as ‘dry ablution’, means wiping one’s face and arms with dust in a particular way as an act of worship when using water is not possible.

The meaning of ghusl

The Arabic word ghusl means to take a bath to wash the whole of one’s body. In the Islamic context it means pouring pure water over the entire body in a particular way, with the intention of worshipping  Allah by uplifiting the state of major ritual impurity.


Istijmar involves wiping with a solid object that is pure and cleansing, such as toilet paper, stones, wood, etc. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used stones for the purpose, and whatever achieves the same results is also acceptable.


Istinja’ is the Arabic word used for the removal of traces of what is discharged through the private parts, while istijmar signifies the use of a cleansing solid object, such as toilet paper or something similar. Either one is sufficient, as it is authentically reported.

Water ensures purification is called tahur

The water that ensures purification is called tahur, and it is defined as pure and purifying. It is every type of water that retains its original state as it is created, whether it falls from the sky, such as rain water, snow and hail, or comes up from the earth, such as the water of rivers, springs, wells and seas.

Ta'zir - Discretionary Punishment

The Arabic term Ta'zir refers to ‘punishment for any act of disobedience to Allah which does not carry a mandatory punishment or require a particular recompense.’ It is required for any such sin, whether by doing what is forbidden or neglecting what is obligatory, provided the Muslim ruler is aware of it.

False accusation

Qadhf is an Arabic root that originally means ‘throwing stones or similar objects’, and then came to be used to mean accusing others of committing immoral offences such as adultery and fornication, as such accusations also cause harm to the accused. In Islamic terminology it refers to false accusation of adultery or sodomy. 

How Islam Views Adultery

Adultery is one of the gravest and most wicked sins as it leaves very serious effects on both individuals and society. It causes the absence of clarity of lineage, which leads to people’s rights of inheritance being mixed up, and families split and collapse as a result, with grave consequences for children and their upbringing. When adultery leads to pregnancy, the child is often brought up by someone who is not its real father. Social ties are considerably weakened by the spread of adultery, and therefore Islam warns very sternly against all sexual relations outside the marriage bond and prescribes severe punishments for it.

The concept of hadd in islamic law

The hudud, i.e. mandatory punishments, aim to deter people from committing acts of disobedience of Allah and encroaching on what He has forbidden. Thus, they help to spread security and reassurance in the community. In addition, they serve to absolve the guilty of their guilt.

Islamic Punishments (Hudud)

The Arabic term hadd (plural: hudud) is defined as a punishment stated in Islamic law for encroaching on the limits set by Allah. It is also defined as a punishment stated in Islamic law, as a deterrent from committing a similar offence. The legitimacy of these punishments is based on the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the unanimity of scholars. Specific punishments are stated in the Qur’an and the Sunnah as applicable to certain crimes, such as adultery and theft.


1-The sacrifice for pilgrimage in the tamattu' or the qiran methods may be offered any time between the Eid prayer on Eid day (i.e. an hour after sunrise) until the end of the Tashriq days which is the 13th.  2-The sacrifice for having to break the ihram restrictions, such as having to shave one’s head or wear ordinary clothes, has no specific time: its time is when this is done. The same applies to the sacrifice for omitting a duty. However, it should be as soon as possible without delay. 3-The sacrifice for being prevented from continuing with the pilgrimage: its time is when this takes place. What is required is to sacrifice a sheep. Seven people may share a sacrifice of one camel or a cow.

Types of sacrifice

1-Offering a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep is obligatory for people offering the pilgrimage in the  tamattu'  or  qiran  methods. 2-Sacrifice in compensation 3-Voluntary sacrifice 4-Pledged sacrifice