The pilgrimage includes four essential requirements, i.e. rukns:1. I h r a m , i.e. consecration, is a state where an individual commits himself to be in before setting off to perform either the major or minor (umrah).2. Attendance at Arafat on 9 Dhul-Hijjah.3. The t aw a f after Arafat.4. Walking between the two hills of al-Safa and al-Marwah.