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Truce agreements

A truce refers to an agreement made by the Muslim ruler or his deputy with the enemy to cease fighting for a specified period, whether short or long, as may be needed. This is perfectly permissible if it is of benefit to the Muslim community, as in the case when the Muslim community is in a state of weakness or unpreparedness to fight, or for some other valid reason such as the hope to be able to advocate Islam among unbelievers, etc.

War gains

The majority of scholars agree that war gains are divided into five shares. The first share belongs to the Muslim treasury, and it is taken by the Muslim ruler or anyone he has assigned for the purpose.

Captives of War

When Muslims take enemy officers and soldiers as prisoners of war, they must treat these captives well. In the Battle of Badr, the first major battle in the history of Islam, the Muslims took a large number of unbelievers as prisoners. The Prophet  (peace be upon him) gave orders that these captives should be treated well. His Companions gave them preference over their own families in food and drink, showing them every kindness.

Types of sacrifice

Offering a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep is obligatory for people offering the pilgrimage in the tamattu' or qiran methods. This is a sacrifice offered in gratitude to Allah for enabling the pilgrim to offer both the pilgrimage and the 'umrah in the same season.

The Sacrifice

Al-hady is an Arabic term that refers to the sacrifice offered as part of the pilgrimage. The sacrifice comprises animals: camels, cows and sheep that are slaughtered to earn Allah’s reward. 

On the way back

‘When the Prophet (peace be upon him) started his journey home after an expedition, or after the pilgrimage or 'umrah, whenever he came to a narrow passage or an open space, or a plateau, he would say Allah-u akbar three times then add: La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la shariqa lah. Lahul-mulk wa lahul-hamd, wa huwa [ala kulli shay’in qadir. Ayibun, ta'ibun, [abidun, sajidun, lirabbina hamidun. Sadaq Allah wa'dah, wa nasar 'abdah, wa hazam al-Ahzaba wahdah’.

If the stoning is delayed

A pilgrim who has delayed the stoning until the last day starts doing this duty as for the first day, i.e. 11 Dhul-Hijjah, and performs the stoning at the three Jamrahs in the right order, as explained earlier. After stoning at the Grand Jamrah, he goes back to the first Jamrah to do the stoning for the second day, 12 Dhul-Hijjah, at the three Jamrahs in the same order. He repeats the whole process again for the last day, 13 Dhul-Hijjah. When he has done this, his pilgrimage duties are completed and he should leave Mina. It should be noted that if stoning is not done before sunset of the 13th, it cannot be done afterwards.

The pilgrimage days

Pilgrimage starts by the pilgrim taking a bath, declaring his intention to do pilgrimage, entering in a state of consecration and starting his journey to Mina by midday. This article explains all steps in details. 

The consecration

Pilgrims start their consecration from the place where they happen to be in Makkah or Mina or any other place. They declare: Labbayka Allahumma hajjan (i.e. I respond to You, my Lord, intending to do the pilgrimage). The pilgrims who chose the qiran or ifrad methods are already in consecration. 

Yawm al-Tarwiyah

Pilgrims staying in Makkah or resident in Makkah are recommended to take a bath, wear perfume, and then enter into the state of consecration for the pilgrimage during mid-morning.


Compensation is an obligation on pilgrim if he violates any of pilgrimage restrictions. Compensation is due whether the violation was for a valid on invalid reason. It may be a sacrifice, donation or fasting.


Pilgrimage is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built on. Its steps are clearly mentioned in Quran and it must fulfill certain rites in particular places and times in order to be complete. 

Zakat al-Fitr

Zakat al-Fitr is a duty incumbent on every Muslim. Ibn 'Umar reports: ‘Allah’s messenger made the Zakat al-Fitr, a sa' of dates or barley, binding on every Muslim: slave or free, male or female, young or old.