Scholars are unanimous that dry ablution is perfectly legitimate when the conditions for it apply. They also agree that it replaces purification with water, making it permissible to pray, perform the tawaf, recite the Qur’an, etc.
The Arabic word ghusl means to take a bath to wash the whole of one’s body. In the Islamic context it means pouring pure water over the entire body in a particular way, with the intention of worshipping Allah by uplifiting the state of major ritual impurity.
Istijmar involves wiping with a solid object that is pure and cleansing, such as toilet paper, stones, wood, etc. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used stones for the purpose, and whatever achieves the same results is also acceptable.
Offering a sacrifice by slaughtering a sheep is obligatory for people offering the pilgrimage in the tamattu' or qiran methods. This is a sacrifice offered in gratitude to Allah for enabling the pilgrim to offer both the pilgrimage and the 'umrah in the same season.
‘When the Prophet (peace be upon him) started his journey home after an expedition, or after the pilgrimage or 'umrah, whenever he came to a narrow passage or an open space, or a plateau, he would say Allah-u akbar three times then add: La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la shariqa lah. Lahul-mulk wa lahul-hamd, wa huwa [ala kulli shay’in qadir. Ayibun, ta'ibun, [abidun, sajidun, lirabbina hamidun. Sadaq Allah wa'dah, wa nasar 'abdah, wa hazam al-Ahzaba wahdah’.
A pilgrim who has delayed the stoning until the last day starts doing this duty as for the first day, i.e. 11 Dhul-Hijjah, and performs the stoning at the three Jamrahs in the right order, as explained earlier. After stoning at the Grand Jamrah, he goes back to the first Jamrah to do the stoning for the second day, 12 Dhul-Hijjah, at the three Jamrahs in the same order. He repeats the whole process again for the last day, 13 Dhul-Hijjah. When he has done this, his pilgrimage duties are completed and he should leave Mina. It should be noted that if stoning is not done before sunset of the 13th, it cannot be done afterwards.
Pilgrimage starts by the pilgrim taking a bath, declaring his intention to do pilgrimage, entering in a state of consecration and starting his journey to Mina by midday. This article explains all steps in details.
Pilgrims start their consecration from the place where they happen to be in Makkah or Mina or any other place. They declare: Labbayka Allahumma hajjan (i.e. I respond to You, my Lord, intending to do the pilgrimage). The pilgrims who chose the qiran or ifrad methods are already in consecration.
Compensation is an obligation on pilgrim if he violates any of pilgrimage restrictions. Compensation is due whether the violation was for a valid on invalid reason. It may be a sacrifice, donation or fasting.
Pilgrimage is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built on. Its steps are clearly mentioned in Quran and it must fulfill certain rites in particular places and times in order to be complete.