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Linguistically speaking, the Arabic term dhimmah means pledge, security or warranty. The dhimmah pledge means, in Islamic terminology, leaving some unbelievers alone and protecting them in return for their payment of jizyah and abiding by the Islamic rules that apply to them.
A truce refers to an agreement made by the Muslim ruler or his deputy with the enemy to cease fighting for a specified period, whether short or long, as may be needed. This is perfectly permissible if it is of benefit to the Muslim community, as in the case when the Muslim community is in a state of weakness or unpreparedness to fight, or for some other valid reason such as the hope to be able to advocate Islam among unbelievers, etc.
The majority of scholars agree that war gains are divided into five shares. The first share belongs to the Muslim treasury, and it is taken by the Muslim ruler or anyone he has assigned for the purpose.
When Muslims take enemy officers and soldiers as prisoners of war, they must treat these captives well. In the Battle of Badr, the first major battle in the history of Islam, the Muslims took a large number of unbelievers as prisoners. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave orders that these captives should be treated well. His Companions gave them preference over their own families in food and drink, showing them every kindness.
In this Lecture, Sh. Assim Al-Hakeem discusses and explains the Truce agreements. This course will cover all the practical rules that every Muslim, man or woman, should know, citing their bases in the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
The validity of pledge of security is a set of laws regulating the international relationships between countries before, but they need to be revised by Muslim scholars to fit with the modern laws nowadays.
Pledge of security is terminology to describe the international relations nowadays. Rulings identified before by Muslim scholars needs to be revised according to the current international agreements.
Dhimmah is the money paid by non-believers to the government to benefit from the services and protection offered. Financials should follow Islamic regulations while religious beliefs are theirs to handle.
War gains are to be divided into 5 shares according to Quran, 1 to the ruler and the other 4 shares among the army adult sane free soldiers according to their roles, scholars rulings need to be revised to be fit nowadays.
Muslim rulers could make truce agreement with their enemies to cease fighting for specific duration if it is in favor of Muslim community. They also can make peace treaty which must be respected by both parties.
Muslims can take booties left by enemies who ran away in fear of Muslim army. They are called “Fay”; they could be given to the poor or the ruler decides how they will be used in the best interest of the community.
Muslims must treat soldiers taken as prisoners of war with kindness. After that they may get their freedom, pay ransom or to be exchanged with other prisoners. Those who committed crimes against Islam are killed.
Islam permitted war when it is the only way for peace. During the fight only those who are actively fighting are killed and it is forbidden to kill women, children and elderly. Other war rules are discussed below.
The image of Islam and specially the meaning of Jihad have been distorted by two sides. The first is Islam enemies, but the second are the groups of Muslim extremists who give their actions a false Islamic guise.
In Islam Jihad is all efforts one exerts in advocacy of Islam and its society. The highest level of Jihad is fighting the enemy but God has only permitted it for three reasons. They also have to observe Islam morals.