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Muslim bathroom etiquette - Part II

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It is also forbidden to urinate or defecate by the roadside, or in the shade, or in parks, or under a fruit tree, or close to water sources.

Muslim bathroom etiquette

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It is forbidden to urinate in stagnant water, hold the Qur’an or to read it when one is in the toilet, hold one’s penis with one’s right hand when urinating, and one should not use it to clean oneself after urination or defecation. It is also forbidden to urinate or defecate by the roadside.

Toilet Manners

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When one goes to the toilet, one is recommended to say before entering: ‘In the name of Allah. My Lord, I seek shelter with You from all that is dirty and foul.

Relieving oneself in an open area

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If a person is relieving oneself in an open area, as in the desert, one may not face the qiblah or turn one’s back to it.

Istijmar

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Istijmar involves wiping with a solid object that is pure and cleansing, such as toilet paper, stones, wood, etc.

Istinja and Istibra

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Istinja’ is the Arabic word used for the removal of traces of what is discharged through the private parts, while istijmar signifies the use of a cleansing solid object, such as toilet paper or something similar.

What is reprehensible when relieving oneself

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What is reprehensible when relieving oneself a- Relieving oneself in an open area and it is windy, to do it facing the direction of the wind. b- To converse with anyone and  to urinate over a crevice in the ground. c- To take anything in which Allah’s name is written, except when necessary.

Using the toilet and its manners

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The use of water or solids, and whether either is sufficient.

Unbelievers’ utensils

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The primary ruling is that these are permissible to use. However, if it is known that they are contaminated with impurity, then they may not be used until they have been washed.

Utensils welded with gold or silver

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If gold is used for welding a broken utensil, it becomes unlawful to use, but If a small amount of silver is used for welding, it is permissible to use.

Use of gold and silver articles in purification

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The use of gold and silver articles for food and drink is forbidden.

Containers, plates and utensils

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Under this heading all types of utensils are included, including metal containers. To start with, these are permissible to use,  as Allah says: ‘It is He who created for you all that is on earth’ (2: 29).

The water used for purification

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The water that ensures purification is called tahur, and it is defined as pure and purifying.

Purification

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Linguistically speaking, purification means cleanliness and being free of dirt. Technically, purity is divided into two types; removing the filth and uplifting the ritual status of impurity.

Works of Hanbli school

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Al-Marawi’s Al-Inf. Ibn Mufli’s Al-Fur, and those by later scholars include Mansour al-Bahuti’s - Kashf al-Qina'an Matn al-Iqna'

Hanbli school

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Methodology: Texts, The rulings of the Prophet’s Companions, whenever they agreed on a question. When the Prophet’s Companions disagreed, he would choose the view he considered closest to the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

works of Al-Shafi'i School

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Mohammed al-Ramli -Nihayat al-Muhtaj ila Shar al-Minhaj; 2) Ahmad al-Haytami’s -Tufaht al-Muhtaj fi Sharh al-Minhaj; and 3) al-Khab al-Shirbni’s Mughni- al-Muhtaj ila Shar al-Minhaj.

Al-Shafi'i School

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Methodology: Qur'an, Sunnah, Unanimity of (all) the Scholars, the statement of any Companion of the Prophet (pbuh), provided there is no disagreement among the Prophet’s Companions on the same matter, Analogy: applying a stated verdict to a question that carries no verdict, provided that the reasoning for this verdict applies equally to both questions.

Works of Maliki School

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Sunan’s Al-Mudawwanah, rulings and statements as transmitted by Abd al-Rahmaan ibn al-Qasim; and Mukhta ar Khal l. Al-Dardr’s Al-Shar al-Kabr, with further annotations by Ibn Arafah al-Dusqi; Muhammad Al-Abdari al-Mawwq’s Al-Tj wal-Ikll; and al-ab’s shiyat Mawhib al-Jall fi Shar Mukhtaar Khall.

Works of Hanafi School

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Among the best known works that explain the Hanafi school of Fiqh is Ibn Abidin’s Radd al-Muhtar ‘ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar; Mas’ud al-Kasani’s Bada’I’ al-Sana’i fi Tartib al-Shara’i; and Ibn al-Hammam’s Fath al-Qadir.

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