Ramadan is a lunar month so its start and end are confirmed by the sighting of the new moon. It requires two acceptable Muslims testifying to the fact, but if no one sees it; Muslims must complete the precedent month.
What is more important than fasting is forming the intention. Muslims are obliged to form the intention and it must be formed before dawn. If the fasting is voluntary it is acceptable to form it during the day.
Janazah prayer is a collective duty. It is performed with the presence of the body of the deceased person in front of the praying people. It consists of standing up, four glorifications, and reciting Al Fatha.
Friday prayer is a duty on all male Muslims. Those who are free, sane, attained puberty, not travelling, have no excuse to miss it. It is performed at the time of Zuhr prayer and it is invalid without a sermon (speech).
Standing up, Allah’s glorification, reading Alfatiha, bowing, standing up after bowing, prostration, being still in every rukn, tashahud, salam, are among the 14 prayers’ essentials that cannot be omitted.