Scholars express different views on offering condolences to non- Muslim. Those who support it say that it is appropriate for a Muslim to condole a non-Muslim, as if they do not it may be interpreted as hostility.
The Centre of Research Excellence in Contemporary Fiqh Issues
There are 3 views on the burial of Muslims in non-Muslim graveyards in non- Muslim countries. The first permits it as a matter of necessity, the 2nd is against, and the 3rd permits it in a special section for Muslims.
Muslim scholars have 2 different views on burying a Muslim in a coffin in societies where Muslims are minorities. The first discourages it and the second permits it in certain conditions as in case of soft land.
Some scholars permit that Muslims eat permissible animals slaughtered by people of earlier revelations if they live in non-Muslim countries. But electrically shocked animals are prohibited unanimously.
Muslim scholars have 2 opposite views on congratulating and joining non-Muslims on their religious feasts. The first view considers it forbidden. The other sees it permissible if they are at peace with Muslims
The majority of scholars view that it is not permissible for Muslim men and women to shake hands if they are not related to each other. The other view permits shaking hands with elderly women if there is no temptation.
In some greeting situations people bow to each other by lowering their heads or chests. But Muslims are not permitted to bow to each other or to non-Muslims. As it is a greeting of worship that is only offered to God.
Muslims who are resident in non-Muslim countries are not allowed to eat meat from animals slaughtered by unbelievers. It is also prohibited to eat any food that is mixed with such meat including the sauce.
Some scholars see that Muslims living in non-Muslim countries should refrain from eating doubtful meat or food. Others permit it unless they are sure it was slaughtered unlawfully or involve what is forbidden.
Muslims can eat from the food of people from earlier revelation unless their belief has been distorted to total atheism. If so, they are considered unbelievers and any meat they have prepared is unlawful to eat.
Muslims are allowed to take medicine containing alcohol if its amount doesn’t affect the mind and there is no other alternative. It should be prescribed by a qualified doctor and taken within essential limits.
The Qur’an and the Sunnah, as well as the unanimity of Muslim scholars, make clear that the flesh of swine is forbidden to eat. And it is also not permissible to use extracts from what is forbidden like gelatin or yeast.
In general it is not permissible to a Muslim to eat in restaurants serving wine or pork. In case there is no other place to eat, it is accepted provided that he does not eat or drink anything that is forbidden.
Muslims living in a non-Muslim country are often invited to events where people are drinking. This is not permissible but some scholars permit it if a Muslim fears some adverse effect or hope to tell about Islam.
It is forbidden to Muslims to eat any food certainly mixed with what is forbidden like pork. In case of doubt about it then the food is permissible to eat, because the normal ruling is that things are permissible.
Some scholars see that the addition of a small quantity of forbidden foodstuff that went through chemical changes so as not to exist on their own acquiring new description, will not affect food permissibility.
In countries like India, women pay the dowry to their husbands. Such a marriage is contrary to Islamic marriage in this respect, it remains a valid marriage according to the unanimity of Islamic scholars.
Scholars have different views in case a woman embraces Islam before her husband. Some see that she stays lawful to him till she completes her waiting period. Others see that marriage dissolution should take place.
Friends or Misyar marriage under which the wife relinquishes some of her rights is permissible by some views as it fulfills the normal requirement of marriage. Still discouraged. Other views are discussed below.
That a Muslim man can marry a woman who follows a divine religion, whether a Christian or a Jewess, is acceptable as mentioned in the Qur’an