A Muslim woman in a non-Muslim country can terminate her marriage at her request “Khul’” through Islamic centers, as they have a judicial status. But the arbiters must follow all the required procedures.
The Centre of Research Excellence in Contemporary Fiqh Issues
The mother has the first right of custody even if she is following an earlier divine religion until the child is 7. In case it is feared that the child will be leaning towards disbelief, it will be taken from his mother.
Muslim scholars have different views on the subject of inheritance when the deceased person and his heirs are from different religions. The presence of a bequest by will plays an important role in this case.
In some cases a man and a woman tend to get married to obtain certain benefits. Scholars are unanimous that such a marriage is forbidden as it is not permissible to go through a marriage contract for false pretenses.
It is a tradition in Western countries that a married woman affiliates herself to her husband family. In Islam there are 2 views on this subject, the first forbids it, but the other sees it as a way of identification.
There are two views on offering unbelievers a greeting other than peace or starting with an ordinary greeting. One view permits offering a general greeting. The other forbids to start by greeting a non-Muslim
It is permissible to exchange visits with non-Muslims when necessary or if it will help Muslims to introduce Islam and giving some advice which is a noble purpose. The Prophet himself used to visit non-Muslims.
Muslims are required to disown unbelievers for God’s sake without harming them. They just have to maintain good peaceful relationships. But taking non-Muslim as intimate associates is not permissible.
A Muslim can offer the greeting of peace to a group of Muslims and unbelievers providing that he intends it to Muslims. The Prophet used to offer peace greeting when he passed by a group of Muslims and idolaters.
Muslims men should follow the non- religious local custom as long as it is not peculiar to unbelievers or used to distinguish them. The Prophet used to wear the same clothes unbelievers used to wear at that time.
Adoption of orphans and children of unknown parenthood is permissible in Islam only to look after them and not affiliate a child to someone other than its own father as it is obliged by some Western countries.
It is permissible for Muslims living in non-Muslim countries to register birth and deaths certificates with the official authorities. Birth certificates are practically relied upon in proving parenthood.
Islam permits artificial insemination if the sperm and the egg are from a married man and woman. And any other situation like getting the egg from another woman or the involvement of a third party is forbidden.
For a marriage to be valid in Islam, the presence of wife’s guardian and witnesses is essential. Official registration is not vital although its absence is discouraged as it ensures the rights for both parties.
Intermarrying a Sunnah woman to a Shia man is not permissible especially if he is from the hard-line Shia as they are a deviant creed. Other scholars declare Shia as believers and they may marry Muslim women.
There are 2 views on the marriage of a Muslim woman who has no Muslim guardians. The first view is that it is not permissible and she may act for herself. The second allows a non-Muslim to act as a guardian in her marriage.
Most scholars agree that an illegitimate person cannot be blamed on his parents’ sin. If a man is born outside of wedlock and proposes to a Muslim woman, it is permissible to marry her if he is Muslim with good manners
Children born from adultery are usually affiliated to their mothers and not her partner. Although another view permits its affiliation to the father if he has been given the mandatory punishment for adultery.
The participation of Muslims in politics in non-Muslim countries could show the true Islam but it also could lead to division within the Muslim community. It depends on the balance between benefit and harm.
A Muslim can take a public office in non-Muslim country if it will help achieve public benefit providing that the work itself is permissible and it won’t cause any harms to Muslims. And he should run it with wisdom.