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The essence of freedom is to be free of subservience to anyone other than God. To think that freedom is to discard God’s commandments is nothing less than considering oneself as the idol and giving subservience to desire.
Who may be ruled as unbeliever and on what basis: The claim that a particular person will be in heaven or hell.
We do not call anyone who offers the Islamic prayer an unbeliever as a result of committing any sin other than disbelief in God. To revile God is an act of disbelief and is indeed worse than associating partners with him.
The status of the Prophet’s companions and their distinction: The best of them and the consequences of speaking ill of them.
The best of people are prophets, then Prophet Muhammad’s companions. Their high status is stated in the Qur’an: ‘Muhammad is God’s Messenger; and those who are with him are firm and unyielding towards the unbelievers, full of mercy towards one another. You can see them bowing down, prostrating in prayer, seeking favour with God and His good pleasure’. (48: 29)
Jihad continues until the end of human life and remains in force all of the time, as long as the Qur’an remains. In an authentic hadith, Jabir reports that the Prophet said: ‘A group of my community will continue to fight for the truth, prevailing until the Day of Judgement’.
To stay with the community is obligatory and no community exists without a leader, or imam. The leader of the Muslim community is obeyed in line with the obedience of God, who says: ‘Believers, obey God and obey the messenger and those from among you who have been entrusted with authority’. (4: 59)
The inevitability of death: Resurrection, reckoning, reward and punishment, and other matters related to the life to come.
Death is inevitable. God says: ‘All that lives on it perishes; but forever will remain the face of your Lord, full of majesty, granting grace’. (55: 26–7) It is a part of faith that we should believe in what comes after death, including one’s examination in the grave and the resulting happiness or torment.
God has assigned their lot to all creatures before they were created, and every creature was created by God’s determination that preceded its creation.
The authority to legislate belongs to God alone: He makes what He wills permissible or forbidden, according to His knowledge and infinite wisdom. His legislation is to ensure that both religion and life are on the proper course.
When revealed text and rational thinking are combined together, religious truth is fully understood. Revealed text is of no benefit to one who has no reason, and reason on its own is of no help to one who has no knowledge of revelation.
The Qur’an is God’s word: He truly said it in sounds, words and surahs. We do not say that ‘it is mere meaning without utterance’, but we say that God speaks whenever He wills: ‘God has spoken His word directly to Moses’. (4: 164).