What the earth produces

source :Osoul Global Center

Zakat is obligatory on what earth produces; grains which are fully grown, can be eaten, stored and meeting the threshold. Rikaz which is gold or silver and minerals which is agreed to be anything coming from earth.

What the earth produces

Zakat is payable on what is produced from the earth, as is clearly stated in the Qur’anic verse:

‘Believers, spend on others out of the good things you have earned, and out of that which We bring forth for you from the earth ’

(2:267)

 Zakat becomes due when grains are fully grown, and in other types when they appear to be good and may be eaten. On such produce the condition of the turn of the year does not apply, because Allah says:


‘Give (to the poor) what is due to them on harvest day ’

(6:141)

Zakat is payable on all kinds of produce that are measured by volume and can be stored, such as wheat, barley, corn, rice, dates, raisins etc. It is not due on fruits and vegetables, because the Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned packing as a criterion and storage, which fits with the general perspective of zakat.[1]

Fruits, vegetables and other agricultural produce that are prepared for immediate sale are liable to zakat not as products of earth but as commercial goods.

Conditions: Two conditions should be met to make zakat payable for agricultural produce:

1-The produce should be equivalent to, or more than, the threshold, which is five measures defined by the Prophet (peace be upon him). This is equivalent in our present day measures to 612 kilograms of grain.

:The Prophet (peace be upon him) says

‘No zakat is due for what is less than five wisqs ’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 1,405; Muslim, hadith No. 979. A wisq is a volume measure estimated to be equal to 122 kilograms

2-The owner should own the threshold of zakat at the time when zakat is due.

The amount payable

For agricultural produce that is irrigated without cost, such as that irrigated by rain or natural springs, the zakat duty is 10 %, while if irrigation depends on labour and machines, the duty is 5 %. This is based on the hadith that says:

‘For what is irrigated by rain, rivers and springs, or does not need irrigation, the zakat is one tenth, and for what is irrigated by camels, the zakat is half of one tenth ’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 1,483; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 1,696

Honey

The majority of scholars are of the view that no zakat is payable for honey. This appears to be the case because there is no clear statement in the Qur’an or the Sunnah mentioning it. The rule is that unless there is evidence to state an obligation, then no obligation exists. Imam al-Shafi'i said: ‘The hadith that mentions that one tenth is levied on honey is poor in authenticity, as is the other report, except for what is mentioned by ' Umar ibn ' Abd al-' Aziz. My view is that no zakat is payable for honey. There are confirmed reports and hadiths stating the types that are liable to zakat, but we have no confirmed report concerning honey. This suggests that it is not required.

 Ibn al-Mundhir said: ‘There is no report that stands to proper examination concerning the payment of zakat on honey.[2]

Zakat on rikaz

Rikaz refers to whatever is found of gold, silver, or anything else that bears the sign of Islamic era which was buried by unbelievers and does not require much labour or great expense to recover. If it requires expense and labour to recover, then it is not rikaz.[3]One fifth of it, whatever the quantity, is paid as zakat. The conditions of meeting the threshold of zakat and the turn of the year do not apply to rikaz. The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) hadith is very general, as he says:

‘One fifth is due on rikaz ’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 1,499; Muslim, hadith No. 1,710

Rikaz is used to pay for the national interests of the Muslim community. It may be of any type, not necessarily gold or silver.

Minerals

Minerals refers to everything that comes out of the ground, which is neither of its structure nor a plant, whether liquid like oil, or solid like iron, copper, gold and silver. As we have already noted, minerals are subject to zakat according to the majority of scholars. Their view is based on the fact that statements referring to what the earth yields are general and cover all mineral resources, as mentioned in the Qur’anic verse that says: 

‘Believers, spend on others out of the good things you have earned, and out of that which We bring forth for you from the earth ’

(2:267)

references

  1. Al-Nadawi, Al-Fiqh al-Muyassar, p. 131.
  2. Al-Nadawi, Al-Fiqh al-Muyassar, p. 132; Sabiq, Fiqh al-Sunnah, vol. 1, p. 362.
  3. Al-Zuhaili, Al-Fiqh al-Islami, vol. 3, p. 1,859.

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