What invalidates fasting

source :Osoul Global Center

There are some acts that invalidate Muslims fasting and they must be aware of.  These acts include; to eat, drink, having sexual intercourse, forcing oneself to vomit, cupping, or fasting during menstruation.

What invalidates fasting

A fasting person invalidates his fast by any of the following actions:

1-Eating or drinking deliberately:

:Allah says

‘And eat and drink until the white of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then resume the fast till nightfall.’

(2:187)

Furthermore, anything that takes the place of eating and/or drinking shares the same ruling and invalidates fasting. For example, receiving intravenous fluids takes the place of food and drink, because it nourishes the body the same as food and drink.

2-Sexual intercourse: Whoever has sexual intercourse with his wife when fasting, their fast is invalidated. The person who thus invalidates his fast during Ramadan is required to repent for having committed this sinful action, seek Allah’s forgiveness, fast a day in compensation for this invalidated day and further expiate his wrong by freeing a slave from bondage. If this is unavailable or unaffordable, then the expiation takes the form of fasting two consecutive months. If the offender is unable to fast two months, then he feeds 60 poor people. 

:Abu Hurayrah reports

‘We were sitting with Allah’s messenger when a man came in and said ‘O Messenger of Allah, I am ruined.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him: “What have you done to be ruined?” He said: “I had intercourse with my wife when I was fasting (in Ramadan).” The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him: “Can you afford to free a slave?” The man said he could not. The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked: “Can you, then, fast two consecutive months?” The man said: “No.” The Prophet  (peace be upon him) asked: “Can you feed 60 poor people?” The man again said: “No.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) waited. Then as we were still with the Prophet (peace be upon him), he was brought a sack of dates. He asked: “Where is the man who asked me earlier?” The man identified himself. The Prophet  (peace be upon him) said: “Take this and give it away to charity.” The man said: “Shall I give it to anyone poorer than me, Messenger of Allah? By Allah, there is not in between the two sides of Madinah a household that is poorer than my own family.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) smiled widely, then said: Feed your family with it.’

Related by al-Bukhari, hadith No. 1,936; Muslim, hadith No. 1,111

Related to this, fasting is invalidated by deliberate ejaculation, as in the case of masturbation or foreplay leading to ejaculation. All this counts as deliberate arousal and this is contrary to fasting. In such a case, the person who does any of these must compensate by repenting and fasting a day after Ramadan. There is no other expiation required, because such expiation is binding only in the case of the man having sexual intercourse with his wife.

3-Deliberate vomiting: This means deliberately throwing up whatever is in one’s stomach of food or drink. If it happens unintentionally, the fast remains valid.

:The Prophet (peace be upon him) said

Whoever throws up unintentionally need not compensate for his fast, but the one who throws up deliberately must repeat his fast.’

Related by [Abdullah ibn Ahmad in Zawa’id al-Musnad, hadith No. 10,463; Abu Dawud, hadith No. 2,380; al-Tirmidhi, hadith No. 720; Ibn Majah, hadith No. 1,676; al-Nassa’i in Al-Sunan al-Kubra, hadith No. 3,117

4-Cupping: This involves bringing blood out through the skin, rather than the veins. If a fasting person undergoes cupping, he invalidates his fasting,

:as the Prophet (peace be upon him) says

‘Both the cupping and the cupped persons break their fast.’

Related by Abu Dawud, hadith No. 2,367; Ibn Majah, hadith No. 1,680; Ibn Khuzaymah, hadith No. 1,983

 The person administering the cupping also invalidates his fast if he sucks the blood with his mouth, but if the sucking is done by some tools, then his fast remains valid.

5-Menstruation and postnatal bleeding: When a woman begins her menses, or her postnatal period, her fast is invalidated. She must compensate by fasting later.

:The Prophet (peace be upon him) said

‘Is it not true that when she has the period, she neither prays nor fasts?.’

Related by al-Bukhari, Book 30, hadith No. 58

6-Intending to break the fast: Any fasting person who forms the intention of breaking or ending his fast before the time is due invalidates his fast, even though he might not eat or drink. Intention is one of two essentials for the validity of fasting. If it is broken, with the intention to end the fast, the fast is broken.

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